Paralysis is a general concept and means an inability to contraction of muscles. The term does not mean a specific independent disease, it is only one of the symptoms of a specific disease (e.g. a tumor in the brain, a disturbance of cerebral circulation). In some cases, the term is used to describe muscle contraction disorders.

Types of paralysis

Distribution of the disease into species depends on where the focus of its origin and how exactly does the lack of muscle strength of the limbs. Thus, 2 types of paralysis are distinguished from the first distribution factor:

  • central or spastic – disturbance of motor neurons (nervous system cells that provide muscle movement), may be combined with increased tone of the paralyzed muscles;
  • peripheral or sluggish – binds with the affected nerves that go to the muscles. It is combined with the reduced tone of the paralyzed muscles and their atrophy (thinning).

The second factor of paralysis distribution into species has 4 forms:

  • Monoplegia is a type of disease when one limb is paralyzed;
  • hemiplegia is a paralysis of both limbs, which is concentrated on one side;
  • paraplegia is a paralysis of only the upper or lower limbs;
  • tetraplegia – the muscles of all limbs are paralyzed.

Cerebral paralysis

Types of paralysis and causes

Cerebral paralysis (CP) is a disorder of the musculoskeletal system, which is characterized by anomalies of motor function and postural tone. The pathology is diagnosed in the period before birth, and the symptomatology of cerebral palsy is usually manifested before the first year of life. The pathology occurs as a result of any anomaly of the brain structure and is its non-progressive lesion, which does not lead to brain degeneration and manifests itself as a result of a one-time injury.

Although the pathology may be congenital, treatment of the paralysis is still possible, and the main manipulation techniques of therapy should be focused on the main cause of the paralysis. Thus, surgical interventions are possible to remove a tumor or hemorrhage in the brain or spinal cord. If the cause is an ulcer, antibiotics should be prescribed, and if the paralysis is due to an infectious lesion of the brain, antibiotics should be prescribed. It is necessary to normalize blood pressure and take drugs to improve cerebral blood flow and metabolism (nootropics, angio-protectors), if the paralysis was caused by poor cerebral circulation. As an additional therapy, you need drugs to normalize neuromuscular behavior, taking vitamins C, B, A, as well as a specialist should advise on methods with which to develop the paralyzed muscles, because in the long absence of work and muscle movement may occur irreversible loss of their functions.

Reasons for this symptom

Types of paralysis and causes

In the pathology of “paralysis” there are different causes, but they eventually come down to one – brain damage, which occurs due to trauma, tumor, abscess (pustule), or inflammation. In addition, the paralysis may occur due to demyelinating diseases, which are accompanied by the decay of protein – myelin, whose function is to conduct nerve impulses through the fibers: for example, these are diseases such as sclerosis or multiple encephalomyelitis (infectious). For example, foci of demyelination appear in the lobes of the brain or in the cerebellum. Among the causes of paralysis are other diseases not related to demyelination: myasthenia – a disease with a pathology of muscle fatigue; myopathy – congenital or acquired metabolic disorders in muscle tissue; botulinum toxin poisoning, which is referred to as botulism; epilepsy; diseases associated with motoneuron dysfunction, resulting in a pathology of muscle function and paralysis of the limbs.
The most common form of this symptom is leg paralysis, or paresis, in which it is difficult for the patient to bend the hip and shin due to lack of strength in the muscles. This is due to lesions of motoneurons of the dorzal nerve roots of the spinal cord.