Paralysis is a complete loss of muscle strength in a muscle or group of muscles. This condition is not an independent disease, but is considered only a consequence of a disease, i.e. a sign of it. It occurs in men and women of different ages.
The main manifestation of paralysis is the complete absence of muscle strength in a muscle or muscle group. Due to localization, the following manifestations are distinguished: complete absence of muscle strength in the muscles of the upper limbs, resulting in the inability to perform such actions as gripping an object, raising, bending and stretching the arm; total absence of muscle strength in the muscles of the lower limbs, accompanied by a lack of active movement in the affected limb; head hanging forward, which is observed in the paralysis of the posterior neck muscles.
In addition, non-members of speech may be observed, tongue deflection to the side when it is sticking out of the mouth, waking up of food during meals. In some cases, there is a disturbance of the movement of eyeballs, which is manifested by the lack of coordinated eye movement, resulting in the development of strabismus or so-called “eye paralysis”. Also in some paralyses, pelvic dysfunction develops, which is accompanied by automatic reflex emptying of the bladder and the impossibility of arbitrary defecation (fecal incontinence).
It is important to note that there are fundamental differences between peripheral and central paralysis.
Signs of central paralysis: lack of muscle strength; a decrease in the volume of active movements; a decrease in the volume of passive movements; increased muscle tone (hypertonicity); increased deep reflexes; decrease in surface reflexes; presence of pathological reflexes; no fascial and/or fibrillary jerks.
Signs of peripheral paralysis: reduction of muscle strength in the area of innervation of the corresponding neuron; reduction in the volume of active movements; increase in the volume of passive movements; reduction of muscle tone (hypotension); preservation of surface reflexes; reduction of deep reflexes up to areflexion; development of hypotrophy or atrophy of muscles; presence of fibrillary and/or fascial twitches.
The symptoms of the paralysis do not appear immediately, to be more precise – the inability to move cannot occur abruptly, but usually this pathology can be detected within a year, or, in some cases, after a month. The first symptom is usually the inability to move and control the musculoskeletal system due to lack of strength in the muscles or the whole group of muscles. Other manifestations of paralysis are also possible, for example, disturbed processes of eye apple movements – one or both eyes can not be turned in several or at least one direction, which may lead to violations of coordination of eye movements, resulting in possible strabismus. In addition, a person may be with both eyes in the same direction, which is associated with violations of the functions of coordinated gaze, this pathology is called “gaze paralysis. One of the symptoms is the inability to speak normally – a person becomes nasty and speech becomes indistinguishable, which is due to paralysis of the muscles of the soft palate. Another type of paralysis of the oral cavity with lesions of the tongue muscles is also possible, which makes it difficult for the patient to turn it.